PSR-2-coding-style-guide

Last updated 3 months ago

이 가이드는 기본 코딩 표준인 PSR-1을 확장입니다.

이 가이드의 의도는 다른 저자의 코드를 볼 때 가독성을 해치는 것을 줄이는 것입니다. PHP 코드의 형식을 지정하는 방법에 대한 여러가지 규칙과 기대 사항을 나열함으로써 이를 달성합니다.

이 스타일 규칙은 다양한 회원 프로젝트 간의 공통점에서 파생되었습니다. 다양한 저자가 여러 프로젝트에서 공동 작업을 수행 할 때 모든 프로젝트 중에서 한 가지의 가이드을 사용하는 것이 도움이 됩니다. 따라서 이 가이드의 이점은 규칙 자체가 아니라 이러한 규칙을 공유하는 것입니다.

이 문서에서 핵심이 되는 단어는 "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", "OPTIONAL" 입니다. 이것은 RFC 2119에 설명 된대로 해석해야 합니다. 역자주: 위의 키워드는 아래의 번역문에 괄호안에 표시하였습니다

1. 개요

  • 코드는 반드시(MUST) "코딩 스타일 가이드" PSR [PSR-1]을 따라야합니다.

  • 코드는 들여쓰기에 반드시(MUST) 탭이 아니라 스페이스 4칸을 사용해야합니다.

  • 한줄에 들어가는 문자열의 길이에 엄격한 제한이 있으면 안됩니다. 가벼운 제한은 한줄에 120자입니다 (MUST). 가능하다면 한줄은 80자 이하 여야합니다 (SHOULD).

  • namespace 선언 다음에 빈 줄이 하나 있어야만 하며(MUST) 그리고 use 선언 블록 뒤에 빈 줄이 하나 있어야만 합니다 (MUST).

  • 클래스의 여는 중괄호는 다음 줄로 가야만 하며(MUST), 닫는 중괄호는 본문 뒤의 다음 줄로 가야만 합니다(MUST).

  • 메소드의 여는 중괄호는 다음 줄로 가야만 하며(MUST), 닫는 중괄호는 본문 뒤의 다음 줄로 가야만 합니다(MUST).

  • 모든 속성 및 메서드에서 가시성을 선언해야만 합니다 (MUST). abstractfinal은 가시성 (visibility) 전에 선언되어야만 합니다(MUST). static은 가시성 뒤에 선언되어야만 합니다 (MUST).

  • 제어 구조 키워드는 그 뒤에 하나의 공백을 가져야만 합니다 (MUST). 메서드와 함수에서 해서는 안됩니다(MUST NOT). 역자주: if, switch, try, catch, foreach 등

  • 제어 구조를 여는 중괄호는 같은 줄에 있어야만 하며(MUST), 닫는 중괄호는 반드시 본문 뒤의 다음 줄로 가야만 합니다(MUST).

  • 제어 구조를 여는 괄호는 그 뒤에 공백이 없어야만 하며(MUST NOT), 제어 구조에 대한 닫는 괄호는 전에는 공백이 없어야만 합니다(MUST NOT).

1.1. 예제

이 예는 아래의 규칙 중 일부를 간략하게 설명합니다.

<?php
namespace Vendor\Package;
use FooInterface;
use BarClass as Bar;
use OtherVendor\OtherPackage\BazClass;
class Foo extends Bar implements FooInterface
{
public function sampleMethod($a, $b = null)
{
if ($a === $b) {
bar();
} elseif ($a > $b) {
$foo->bar($arg1);
} else {
BazClass::bar($arg2, $arg3);
}
}
final public static function bar()
{
// method body
}
}

2. General

2.1. Basic Coding Standard

Code MUST follow all rules outlined in PSR-1.

2.2. Files

All PHP files MUST use the Unix LF (linefeed) line ending.

All PHP files MUST end with a single blank line.

The closing ?> tag MUST be omitted from files containing only PHP.

2.3. Lines

There MUST NOT be a hard limit on line length.

The soft limit on line length MUST be 120 characters; automated style checkers MUST warn but MUST NOT error at the soft limit.

Lines SHOULD NOT be longer than 80 characters; lines longer than that SHOULD be split into multiple subsequent lines of no more than 80 characters each.

There MUST NOT be trailing whitespace at the end of non-blank lines.

Blank lines MAY be added to improve readability and to indicate related blocks of code.

There MUST NOT be more than one statement per line.

2.4. Indenting

Code MUST use an indent of 4 spaces, and MUST NOT use tabs for indenting.

N.b.: Using only spaces, and not mixing spaces with tabs, helps to avoid problems with diffs, patches, history, and annotations. The use of spaces also makes it easy to insert fine-grained sub-indentation for inter-line alignment.

2.5. Keywords and True/False/Null

PHP keywords MUST be in lower case.

The PHP constants true, false, and null MUST be in lower case.

3. Namespace and Use Declarations

When present, there MUST be one blank line after the namespace declaration.

When present, all use declarations MUST go after the namespace declaration.

There MUST be one use keyword per declaration.

There MUST be one blank line after the use block.

For example:

<?php
namespace Vendor\Package;
use FooClass;
use BarClass as Bar;
use OtherVendor\OtherPackage\BazClass;
// ... additional PHP code ...

4. Classes, Properties, and Methods

The term "class" refers to all classes, interfaces, and traits.

4.1. Extends and Implements

The extends and implements keywords MUST be declared on the same line as the class name.

The opening brace for the class MUST go on its own line; the closing brace for the class MUST go on the next line after the body.

<?php
namespace Vendor\Package;
use FooClass;
use BarClass as Bar;
use OtherVendor\OtherPackage\BazClass;
class ClassName extends ParentClass implements \ArrayAccess, \Countable
{
// constants, properties, methods
}

Lists of implements MAY be split across multiple lines, where each subsequent line is indented once. When doing so, the first item in the list MUST be on the next line, and there MUST be only one interface per line.

<?php
namespace Vendor\Package;
use FooClass;
use BarClass as Bar;
use OtherVendor\OtherPackage\BazClass;
class ClassName extends ParentClass implements
\ArrayAccess,
\Countable,
\Serializable
{
// constants, properties, methods
}

4.2. Properties

Visibility MUST be declared on all properties.

The var keyword MUST NOT be used to declare a property.

There MUST NOT be more than one property declared per statement.

Property names SHOULD NOT be prefixed with a single underscore to indicate protected or private visibility.

A property declaration looks like the following.

<?php
namespace Vendor\Package;
class ClassName
{
public $foo = null;
}

4.3. Methods

Visibility MUST be declared on all methods.

Method names SHOULD NOT be prefixed with a single underscore to indicate protected or private visibility.

Method names MUST NOT be declared with a space after the method name. The opening brace MUST go on its own line, and the closing brace MUST go on the next line following the body. There MUST NOT be a space after the opening parenthesis, and there MUST NOT be a space before the closing parenthesis.

A method declaration looks like the following. Note the placement of parentheses, commas, spaces, and braces:

<?php
namespace Vendor\Package;
class ClassName
{
public function fooBarBaz($arg1, &$arg2, $arg3 = [])
{
// method body
}
}

4.4. Method Arguments

In the argument list, there MUST NOT be a space before each comma, and there MUST be one space after each comma.

Method arguments with default values MUST go at the end of the argument list.

<?php
namespace Vendor\Package;
class ClassName
{
public function foo($arg1, &$arg2, $arg3 = [])
{
// method body
}
}

Argument lists MAY be split across multiple lines, where each subsequent line is indented once. When doing so, the first item in the list MUST be on the next line, and there MUST be only one argument per line.

When the argument list is split across multiple lines, the closing parenthesis and opening brace MUST be placed together on their own line with one space between them.

<?php
namespace Vendor\Package;
class ClassName
{
public function aVeryLongMethodName(
ClassTypeHint $arg1,
&$arg2,
array $arg3 = []
) {
// method body
}
}

4.5. abstract, final, and static

When present, the abstract and final declarations MUST precede the visibility declaration.

When present, the static declaration MUST come after the visibility declaration.

<?php
namespace Vendor\Package;
abstract class ClassName
{
protected static $foo;
abstract protected function zim();
final public static function bar()
{
// method body
}
}

4.6. Method and Function Calls

When making a method or function call, there MUST NOT be a space between the method or function name and the opening parenthesis, there MUST NOT be a space after the opening parenthesis, and there MUST NOT be a space before the closing parenthesis. In the argument list, there MUST NOT be a space before each comma, and there MUST be one space after each comma.

<?php
bar();
$foo->bar($arg1);
Foo::bar($arg2, $arg3);

Argument lists MAY be split across multiple lines, where each subsequent line is indented once. When doing so, the first item in the list MUST be on the next line, and there MUST be only one argument per line.

<?php
$foo->bar(
$longArgument,
$longerArgument,
$muchLongerArgument
);

5. Control Structures

The general style rules for control structures are as follows:

  • There MUST be one space after the control structure keyword

  • There MUST NOT be a space after the opening parenthesis

  • There MUST NOT be a space before the closing parenthesis

  • There MUST be one space between the closing parenthesis and the opening

    brace

  • The structure body MUST be indented once

  • The closing brace MUST be on the next line after the body

The body of each structure MUST be enclosed by braces. This standardizes how the structures look, and reduces the likelihood of introducing errors as new lines get added to the body.

5.1. if, elseif, else

An if structure looks like the following. Note the placement of parentheses, spaces, and braces; and that else and elseif are on the same line as the closing brace from the earlier body.

<?php
if ($expr1) {
// if body
} elseif ($expr2) {
// elseif body
} else {
// else body;
}

The keyword elseif SHOULD be used instead of else if so that all control keywords look like single words.

5.2. switch, case

A switch structure looks like the following. Note the placement of parentheses, spaces, and braces. The case statement MUST be indented once from switch, and the break keyword (or other terminating keyword) MUST be indented at the same level as the case body. There MUST be a comment such as // no break when fall-through is intentional in a non-empty case body.

<?php
switch ($expr) {
case 0:
echo 'First case, with a break';
break;
case 1:
echo 'Second case, which falls through';
// no break
case 2:
case 3:
case 4:
echo 'Third case, return instead of break';
return;
default:
echo 'Default case';
break;
}

5.3. while, do while

A while statement looks like the following. Note the placement of parentheses, spaces, and braces.

<?php
while ($expr) {
// structure body
}

Similarly, a do while statement looks like the following. Note the placement of parentheses, spaces, and braces.

<?php
do {
// structure body;
} while ($expr);

5.4. for

A for statement looks like the following. Note the placement of parentheses, spaces, and braces.

<?php
for ($i = 0; $i < 10; $i++) {
// for body
}

5.5. foreach

A foreach statement looks like the following. Note the placement of parentheses, spaces, and braces.

<?php
foreach ($iterable as $key => $value) {
// foreach body
}

5.6. try, catch

A try catch block looks like the following. Note the placement of parentheses, spaces, and braces.

<?php
try {
// try body
} catch (FirstExceptionType $e) {
// catch body
} catch (OtherExceptionType $e) {
// catch body
}

6. Closures

Closures MUST be declared with a space after the function keyword, and a space before and after the use keyword.

The opening brace MUST go on the same line, and the closing brace MUST go on the next line following the body.

There MUST NOT be a space after the opening parenthesis of the argument list or variable list, and there MUST NOT be a space before the closing parenthesis of the argument list or variable list.

In the argument list and variable list, there MUST NOT be a space before each comma, and there MUST be one space after each comma.

Closure arguments with default values MUST go at the end of the argument list.

A closure declaration looks like the following. Note the placement of parentheses, commas, spaces, and braces:

<?php
$closureWithArgs = function ($arg1, $arg2) {
// body
};
$closureWithArgsAndVars = function ($arg1, $arg2) use ($var1, $var2) {
// body
};

Argument lists and variable lists MAY be split across multiple lines, where each subsequent line is indented once. When doing so, the first item in the list MUST be on the next line, and there MUST be only one argument or variable per line.

When the ending list (whether of arguments or variables) is split across multiple lines, the closing parenthesis and opening brace MUST be placed together on their own line with one space between them.

The following are examples of closures with and without argument lists and variable lists split across multiple lines.

<?php
$longArgs_noVars = function (
$longArgument,
$longerArgument,
$muchLongerArgument
) {
// body
};
$noArgs_longVars = function () use (
$longVar1,
$longerVar2,
$muchLongerVar3
) {
// body
};
$longArgs_longVars = function (
$longArgument,
$longerArgument,
$muchLongerArgument
) use (
$longVar1,
$longerVar2,
$muchLongerVar3
) {
// body
};
$longArgs_shortVars = function (
$longArgument,
$longerArgument,
$muchLongerArgument
) use ($var1) {
// body
};
$shortArgs_longVars = function ($arg) use (
$longVar1,
$longerVar2,
$muchLongerVar3
) {
// body
};

Note that the formatting rules also apply when the closure is used directly in a function or method call as an argument.

<?php
$foo->bar(
$arg1,
function ($arg2) use ($var1) {
// body
},
$arg3
);

7. Conclusion

There are many elements of style and practice intentionally omitted by this guide. These include but are not limited to:

  • Declaration of global variables and global constants

  • Declaration of functions

  • Operators and assignment

  • Inter-line alignment

  • Comments and documentation blocks

  • Class name prefixes and suffixes

  • Best practices

Future recommendations MAY revise and extend this guide to address those or other elements of style and practice.

Appendix A. Survey

In writing this style guide, the group took a survey of member projects to determine common practices. The survey is retained herein for posterity.

A.1. Survey Data

url,http://www.horde.org/apps/horde/docs/CODING_STANDARDS,http://pear.php.net/manual/en/standards.php,http://solarphp.com/manual/appendix-standards.style,http://framework.zend.com/manual/en/coding-standard.html,https://symfony.com/doc/2.0/contributing/code/standards.html,http://www.ppi.io/docs/coding-standards.html,https://github.com/ezsystems/ezp-next/wiki/codingstandards,http://book.cakephp.org/2.0/en/contributing/cakephp-coding-conventions.html,https://github.com/UnionOfRAD/lithium/wiki/Spec%3A-Coding,http://drupal.org/coding-standards,http://code.google.com/p/sabredav/,http://area51.phpbb.com/docs/31x/coding-guidelines.html,https://docs.google.com/a/zikula.org/document/edit?authkey=CPCU0Us&hgd=1&id=1fcqb93Sn-hR9c0mkN6m_tyWnmEvoswKBtSc0tKkZmJA,http://www.chisimba.com,n/a,https://github.com/Respect/project-info/blob/master/coding-standards-sample.php,n/a,Object Calisthenics for PHP,http://doc.nette.org/en/coding-standard,http://flow3.typo3.org,https://github.com/propelorm/Propel2/wiki/Coding-Standards,http://developer.joomla.org/coding-standards.html
voting,yes,yes,yes,yes,yes,yes,yes,yes,yes,yes,yes,yes,yes,yes,yes,no,no,no,?,yes,no,yes
indent_type,4,4,4,4,4,tab,4,tab,tab,2,4,tab,4,4,4,4,4,4,tab,tab,4,tab
line_length_limit_soft,75,75,75,75,no,85,120,120,80,80,80,no,100,80,80,?,?,120,80,120,no,150
line_length_limit_hard,85,85,85,85,no,no,no,no,100,?,no,no,no,100,100,?,120,120,no,no,no,no
class_names,studly,studly,studly,studly,studly,studly,studly,studly,studly,studly,studly,lower_under,studly,lower,studly,studly,studly,studly,?,studly,studly,studly
class_brace_line,next,next,next,next,next,same,next,same,same,same,same,next,next,next,next,next,next,next,next,same,next,next
constant_names,upper,upper,upper,upper,upper,upper,upper,upper,upper,upper,upper,upper,upper,upper,upper,upper,upper,upper,upper,upper,upper,upper
true_false_null,lower,lower,lower,lower,lower,lower,lower,lower,lower,upper,lower,lower,lower,upper,lower,lower,lower,lower,lower,upper,lower,lower
method_names,camel,camel,camel,camel,camel,camel,camel,camel,camel,camel,camel,lower_under,camel,camel,camel,camel,camel,camel,camel,camel,camel,camel
method_brace_line,next,next,next,next,next,same,next,same,same,same,same,next,next,same,next,next,next,next,next,same,next,next
control_brace_line,same,same,same,same,same,same,next,same,same,same,same,next,same,same,next,same,same,same,same,same,same,next
control_space_after,yes,yes,yes,yes,yes,no,yes,yes,yes,yes,no,yes,yes,yes,yes,yes,yes,yes,yes,yes,yes,yes
always_use_control_braces,yes,yes,yes,yes,yes,yes,no,yes,yes,yes,no,yes,yes,yes,yes,no,yes,yes,yes,yes,yes,yes
else_elseif_line,same,same,same,same,same,same,next,same,same,next,same,next,same,next,next,same,same,same,same,same,same,next
case_break_indent_from_switch,0/1,0/1,0/1,1/2,1/2,1/2,1/2,1/1,1/1,1/2,1/2,1/1,1/2,1/2,1/2,1/2,1/2,1/2,0/1,1/1,1/2,1/2
function_space_after,no,no,no,no,no,no,no,no,no,no,no,no,no,no,no,no,no,no,no,no,no,no
closing_php_tag_required,no,no,no,no,no,no,no,no,yes,no,no,no,no,yes,no,no,no,no,no,yes,no,no
line_endings,LF,LF,LF,LF,LF,LF,LF,LF,?,LF,?,LF,LF,LF,LF,?,,LF,?,LF,LF,LF
static_or_visibility_first,static,?,static,either,either,either,visibility,visibility,visibility,either,static,either,?,visibility,?,?,either,either,visibility,visibility,static,?
control_space_parens,no,no,no,no,no,no,yes,no,no,no,no,no,no,yes,?,no,no,no,no,no,no,no
blank_line_after_php,no,no,no,no,yes,no,no,no,no,yes,yes,no,no,yes,?,yes,yes,no,yes,no,yes,no
class_method_control_brace,next/next/same,next/next/same,next/next/same,next/next/same,next/next/same,same/same/same,next/next/next,same/same/same,same/same/same,same/same/same,same/same/same,next/next/next,next/next/same,next/same/same,next/next/next,next/next/same,next/next/same,next/next/same,next/next/same,same/same/same,next/next/same,next/next/next

A.2. Survey Legend

indent_type: The type of indenting. tab = "Use a tab", 2 or 4 = "number of spaces"

line_length_limit_soft: The "soft" line length limit, in characters. ? = not discernible or no response, no means no limit.

line_length_limit_hard: The "hard" line length limit, in characters. ? = not discernible or no response, no means no limit.

class_names: How classes are named. lower = lowercase only, lower_under = lowercase with underscore separators, studly = StudlyCase.

class_brace_line: Does the opening brace for a class go on the same line as the class keyword, or on the next line after it?

constant_names: How are class constants named? upper = Uppercase with underscore separators.

true_false_null: Are the true, false, and null keywords spelled as all lower case, or all upper case?

method_names: How are methods named? camel = camelCase, lower_under = lowercase with underscore separators.

method_brace_line: Does the opening brace for a method go on the same line as the method name, or on the next line?

control_brace_line: Does the opening brace for a control structure go on the same line, or on the next line?

control_space_after: Is there a space after the control structure keyword?

always_use_control_braces: Do control structures always use braces?

else_elseif_line: When using else or elseif, does it go on the same line as the previous closing brace, or does it go on the next line?

case_break_indent_from_switch: How many times are case and break indented from an opening switch statement?

function_space_after: Do function calls have a space after the function name and before the opening parenthesis?

closing_php_tag_required: In files containing only PHP, is the closing ?> tag required?

line_endings: What type of line ending is used?

static_or_visibility_first: When declaring a method, does static come first, or does the visibility come first?

control_space_parens: In a control structure expression, is there a space after the opening parenthesis and a space before the closing parenthesis? yes = if ( $expr ), no = if ($expr).

blank_line_after_php: Is there a blank line after the opening PHP tag?

class_method_control_brace: A summary of what line the opening braces go on for classes, methods, and control structures.

A.3. Survey Results

indent_type:
tab: 7
2: 1
4: 14
line_length_limit_soft:
?: 2
no: 3
75: 4
80: 6
85: 1
100: 1
120: 4
150: 1
line_length_limit_hard:
?: 2
no: 11
85: 4
100: 3
120: 2
class_names:
?: 1
lower: 1
lower_under: 1
studly: 19
class_brace_line:
next: 16
same: 6
constant_names:
upper: 22
true_false_null:
lower: 19
upper: 3
method_names:
camel: 21
lower_under: 1
method_brace_line:
next: 15
same: 7
control_brace_line:
next: 4
same: 18
control_space_after:
no: 2
yes: 20
always_use_control_braces:
no: 3
yes: 19
else_elseif_line:
next: 6
same: 16
case_break_indent_from_switch:
0/1: 4
1/1: 4
1/2: 14
function_space_after:
no: 22
closing_php_tag_required:
no: 19
yes: 3
line_endings:
?: 5
LF: 17
static_or_visibility_first:
?: 5
either: 7
static: 4
visibility: 6
control_space_parens:
?: 1
no: 19
yes: 2
blank_line_after_php:
?: 1
no: 13
yes: 8
class_method_control_brace:
next/next/next: 4
next/next/same: 11
next/same/same: 1
same/same/same: 6